Chas' Life, CREATION
I wonder about the creation of all things. My father was a navigator who told me about the night sky, the moon, the planets and the stars. I have been reading 'A Brief History of Time' by Stephen Hawking and 'A Short History of Nearly Everything' by Bill Bryson.
We humans are born to explore, discover and try to understand the environment that we exist in. Men explored the world first but wondered about the heavens. Now we have even dipped our toe in that outer space and walked on the Moon. Before that happened we had never seen the world we live in from the outside.
When men went out to land on the moon they were able to look back at the Earth, the world we live in, and what a glorious beautiful sight they saw, the blue planet. It is absolutely unique in the Universe which is the sun, planets, moons and stars. The majority of the planets and the moons are just desolate balls of rock. The Earth is just floating in space like the moon does but it is our home and our comfort zone. There may well be nothing else like it.
Our sun is just another star and is one among countless others that you see when looking up at night. Where did it all come from?
The big bang to big birth
A Universe is created, we are in one. There may be others? It is expanding from a singularity, the point of creation. A universe contains space, time and material. During the first second of its existence it would contain lots of atoms. Oh and a huge amount of energy. It is like an expanding balloon. There is absolutely nothing outside it, not even space or time. Our universe is absolutely vast, if you could travel about inside it you will never find an edge. It would be like moving on the outside of a sphere, there is no edge. If you could keep going in one direction you will come back to the same place. And all the while it is continuing to spread outwards forever expanding.
So at this starting point we think pure energy was created. What we see in space is the conversion of energy from one form to another. It is said that the quantity of energy remains constant.
Stephen Hawkins: "The universe is governed by the laws of science. The law may have been decreed by God but God does not intervene to break the law."
The dark matter
Space is not empty between the stars. There is a molecular cloud containing all known molecules which is the dark matter. Gravity exists within the atoms and molecules and gradually the cloud clumped together to form the stars and planets. Galaxies are huge groups of stars. Some stars would explode, a supernova, so much heat was generated that heavier elements were created by absorbing energy.
The Solar system
A supernova created a huge cloud of gas which contained all the elements required to create our sun and planets about 4.6 Billion years ago. 99.9 % of the gas formed our sun which is just another star. The planets, moons and rock were created from the rest of the debris left over.
The earth took about 200 million years to form a molten core of heavy
elements. It grew by continual bombardment from rocks and asteroids. It
is thought that the moon was formed from debris thrown out from the earth
when it was hit by something as large as Mars.
When the earth was about 1/3 its eventual size it started to form an atmosphere spewed out from volcanoes. The earth just happens to be large enough to retain the atmosphere. The original atmosphere would have contained 80% water vapor, 10% Carbon dioxide, 6% Hydrogen Sulfide and smaller amounts of Nitrogen, Carbon Monoxide, Hydrogen, Methane and other inert gasses. For 500 million years more material fell to earth bringing water with it. The earth is just far enough away from the sun to retain the water which neither evaporates into space or freeze completely. A major rain fall led to the buildup of a vast ocean.
The big birth
Somehow life got started in the water. All the material for life is here but we cannot make life, it makes itself. Life on earth regulates the environment. Carbon Dioxide has been reduced from 30% to less than 1% by life's activity. Too much and the environment gets hotter. Then life grows faster and absorbs the Carbon Dioxide by converting it to chalk or limestone. The original atmosphere has been modified when oxygen breathing life forms began to appear. It now contains 78% Nitrogen, 21% Oxygen and a 1% trace of other gases. The amount of oxygen in the atmosphere is regulated by burning when there is too much. Animals make methane which reduces oxygen levels.
Green house gas